Article, 2024

Direct numerical simulation of the drag, lift, and torque coefficients of high aspect ratio biomass cylindrical particles

Physics of Fluids, ISSN 1089-7666, 1070-6631, Volume 36, 1, Page 013315, 10.1063/5.0186621


Wang, Jingliang [1] Ma, Lun [1] Jiang, Maoqiang (Corresponding author) [2] Fang, Qing-Yan (Corresponding author) [1] Yin, Chungen 0000-0002-9885-7744 [3] Tan, Peng [1] Zhang, Cheng [1] Chen, Gang [1]


  1. [1] Huazhong University of Science and Technology
  2. [NORA names: China; Asia, East];
  3. [2] Wuhan University of Technology
  4. [NORA names: China; Asia, East];
  5. [3] Aalborg University
  6. [NORA names: AAU Aalborg University; University; Denmark; Europe, EU; Nordic; OECD]


Biomass straw fuel has the advantage of low-carbon sustainability, and therefore, it has been widely used in recent years in coupled blending combustion with coal-fired utility boilers for power generation. At present, the drag force FD, the lift force FL, and the torque T evaluation model are very limited. In this study, within a wide range of Reynolds numbers (10 ≤ Re ≤ 2000) and incident angles (0° ≤ θ ≤ 90°), the computational fluid dynamics open source code OpenFOAM-body-fitted mesh method is used to carry out the direct numerical simulation of the flow characteristics of large cylindrical biomass particles with a high aspect ratio of L/D = 9:1. The results show that (1) the projected area of the cylinder begins to decrease after reaching the maximum at θ = 15°, while the change in the incident angle causes the formation of a smaller recirculation zone on the leeward side of the structure, and the effect of the pressure difference on the drag coefficient (CD) is reduced. (2) The lift coefficient (CL) displays a parabolic symmetric distribution when θ = 45°, and then the distribution becomes asymmetrical when Re > 100. The torque coefficient (CT) exhibits a similar trend. (3) Based on the simulation data and the literature data, new models for CD, CL, and CT for cylinders with L/D = 9:1, 10 ≤ Re ≤ 2000 and 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° are obtained, and the mean square errors are 2.4 × 10−2, 1.4 × 10−2, and 6.4 × 10−2, respectively. This new model can improve the accuracy and adaptability of the universal model of gas–solid dynamics for biomass particles.


Cd, Cl, L/D, Reynolds, Reynolds number, accuracy, adaptation, angle, area, biomass, biomass particles, blend combustion, boiler, changes, characteristics, coefficient, combustion, cylinder, cylindrical biomass particles, cylindrical particles, data, differences, distribution, drag, drag coefficient, drag force FD, dynamics, effect, error, flow, flow characteristics, force Fd, formation, fuel, gas–solid dynamics, generation, incidence, incident angle, leeward, leeward side, lift, lift coefficient, lift force FL, literature, literature data, low-carbon sustainability, maximum, mean square error, mesh method, method, model, number, numerical simulations, particles, power, power generation, pressure, pressure difference, project area, ratio, ratio of L/D, recirculation, recirculation zone, results, side, simulated data, simulation, square error, straw fuel, structure, study, sustainability, symmetric distribution, torque, torque coefficient, universal model, years, zone


  • National Natural Science Foundation of China
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China
  • Innovation Fund Denmark

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