open access publication

Article, 2023

Potential Modulation of Inflammation and Physical Function by Combined Probiotics, Omega-3 Supplementation and Vitamin D Supplementation in Overweight/Obese Patients with Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, 1422-0067, Volume 24, 10, Page 8567, 10.3390/ijms24108567

Contributors (12)

Kopp, Lena [1] [2] Schweinlin, Anna (0000-0002-1752-1924) [1] [2] Tingö, Lina (0000-0002-2482-9281) [3] [4] [5] Hutchinson, Ashley Nicole [4] [5] Feit, Viktoria [1] [2] Jähnichen, Tabea [1] [2] Lehnert, Katja (0000-0003-4416-531X) [1] [6] Vetter, Walter (0000-0002-5592-4265) [1] [6] Rings, Andreas [1] [2] Jensen, Morten G [7] Brummer, Robert-Jan M (0000-0002-0362-0008) [4] [5] Bischoff, Stephan C. (Corresponding author) [1] [2]


  1. [1] University of Hohenheim
  2. [NORA names: Germany; Europe, EU; OECD]
  3. [2] Department of Nutritional Medicine and Prevention, University of Hohenheim, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany;,, (L.K.);,, (A.S.);,, (V.F.);,, (T.J.);,, (A.R.)
  4. [3] Division of Inflammation and Infection, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, 72076 Tübingen, Germany
  5. [4] Nutrition-Gut-Brain Interactions Research Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, 70362 Örebro, Sweden;,, (L.T.);,, (A.N.H.);,, (R.J.B.)
  6. [5] Örebro University
  7. [NORA names: Sweden; Europe, EU; Nordic; OECD]


Obesity is characterized by low-grade inflammation and increased gut permeability. Here, we aim to evaluate the effect of a nutritional supplement on these parameters in subjects with overweight and obesity. A double-blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 76 adults with overweight or obesity (BMI 28 to 40) and low-grade inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) between 2 and 10 mg/L). The intervention consisted of a daily intake of a multi-strain probiotic of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, 640 mg of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), and 200 IU of vitamin D (n = 37) or placebo (n = 39), administered for 8 weeks. hs-CRP levels did not change post-intervention, other than an unexpected slight increase observed in the treatment group. Interleukin (IL)-6 levels decreased in the treatment group (p = 0.018). The plasma fatty acid (FA) levels of the arachidonic acid (AA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ratio and n-6/n-3 ratio (p < 0.001) decreased, and physical function and mobility improved in the treatment group (p = 0.006). The results suggest that hs-CRP may not be the most useful inflammatory marker, but probiotics, n-3 FAs, and vitamin D, as non-pharmaceutical supplements, may exert modest effects on inflammation, plasma FA levels, and physical function in patients with overweight and obesity and associated low-grade inflammation.


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